Performs miscellaneous math functions, bitwise operations, and tasks such as ASCII/Unicode conversion.

Transform, OutputVar, SubCommand, Value1 , Value2

The *OutputVar* parameter is the name of the variable in which to store the result. The *SubCommand*, *Value1* and *Value2* parameters are dependent upon each other and their usage is described below.

For *SubCommand*, specify one of the following:

- Unicode (for ANSI builds only): Retrieves or stores Unicode text on the clipboard.
- Deref: Expands variable references and escape sequences contained inside other variables.
- HTML: Converts the specified string into its HTML equivalent.

**Deprecated** (has a more concise function or operator):

- Asc: Retrieves the character code for the first character in the specified string.
- Chr: Retrieves the single character corresponding to the character code.
- Mod: Retrieves the remainder of a division.
- Exp: Retrieves e raised to the
*N*th power. - Sqrt: Retrieves the square root of a number.
- Log: Retrieves the logarithm (base 10) of a number.
- Ln: Retrieves the natural logarithm (base e) of a number.
- Round: Retrieves a number rounded to
*N*decimal places. - Ceil: Retrieves a number rounded up to the nearest integer.
- Floor: Retrieves a number rounded down to the nearest integer.
- Abs: Retrieves the absolute value of a number.
- Sin: Retrieves the trigonometric sine of a number.
- Cos: Retrieves the trigonometric cosine of a number.
- Tan: Retrieves the trigonometric tangent of a number.
- ASin: Retrieves the arcsine in radians.
- ACos: Retrieves the arccosine in radians.
- ATan: Retrieves the arctangent in radians.
- Pow: Retrieves a base raised to the power of an exponent.
- BitNot: Retrieves the bit-inverted version of a number.
- BitAnd: Retrieves the result of the bitwise-AND of the specified numbers.
- BitOr: Retrieves the result of the bitwise-OR of the specified numbers.
- BitXOr: Retrieves the result of the bitwise-EXCLUSIVE-OR of the specified numbers.
- BitShiftLeft: Retrieves the result of shifting a number to the left by
*N*bit positions. - BitShiftRight: Retrieves the result of shifting a number to the right by
*N*bit positions.

Retrieves or stores Unicode text on the clipboard (for ANSI builds only).

Transform, OutputVar, Unicode , String

Note: The entire clipboard may be saved and restored by means of ClipboardAll, which allows this sub-command to operate without losing the original contents of the clipboard.

There are two modes of operation as illustrated in the following examples:

Transform, OutputVar, Unicode; Retrieves the clipboard's Unicode text as a UTF-8 string.Transform, Clipboard, Unicode, %MyUTF_String%; Places Unicode text onto the clipboard.

In the second example above, a literal UTF-8 string may be optionally used in place of `%MyUTF_String%`

.

Use a hotkey such as the following to determine the UTF-8 string that corresponds to a given Unicode string:

^!u::; Control+Alt+U hotkey.MsgBox Copy some Unicode text onto the clipboard, then return to this window and press OK to continue. Transform, ClipUTF, Unicode Clipboard := "Transform, Clipboard, Unicode, %ClipUTF%`r`n" MsgBox The clipboard now contains the following line that you can paste into your script. When executed, this line will cause the original Unicode string you copied to be placed onto the clipboard:`n`n%Clipboard% return

**Note:** The `Send {U+nnnn}`

command is an alternate way to produce Unicode characters.

Expands variable references and escape sequences contained inside other variables.

`Transform, OutputVar, Deref, String`

Any badly formatted variable references will be omitted from the expanded result. The same is true if *OutputVar* is expanded into itself; in other words, any references to *OutputVar* inside *String's* variables will be omitted from the expansion (note however that *String* **itself** can be `%OutputVar%`

). In the following example, if Var1 contains the string "test" and Var2 contains the **literal** string "%Var1%", *OutputVar* will be set to the string "test": `Transform, OutputVar, Deref, %Var2%`

. Within a function, each variable in *String* always resolves to a local variable unless there is no such variable, in which case it resolves to a global variable (or blank if none).

Converts *String* into its HTML equivalent by translating characters whose ASCII values are above 127 to their HTML names (e.g. `£`

becomes `£`

).

Transform, OutputVar, HTML, String , Flags

In addition, the four characters `"&<>`

are translated to `"&<>`

. Finally, each linefeed (``n`

) is translated to `<br>`n`

(i.e. `<br>`

followed by a linefeed). The *Flags* parameter is ignored.

**For Unicode executables:** In addition of the functionality above, *Flags* can be zero or a combination (sum) of the following values. If omitted, it defaults to 1.

- 1: Converts certain characters to named expressions. e.g.
`€`

is converted to`€`

- 2: Converts certain characters to numbered expressions. e.g.
`€`

is converted to`€`

Only non-ASCII characters are affected. If *Flags* is the number 3, numbered expressions are used only where a named expression is not available. The following characters are always converted: `<>"&`

and ``n`

(line feed).

**Deprecated:** Not recommended for use in new scripts. Use Asc() instead.

Retrieves the character code (a number between 1 and 255, or 1 and 65535 if Unicode is supported) for the first character in *String*.

`Transform, OutputVar, Asc, String`

If *String* is empty, *OutputVar* will also be made empty. For example: `Transform, OutputVar, Asc, %VarContainingString%`

. To allow for Unicode supplementary characters, use Ord() instead.

**Deprecated:** Not recommended for use in new scripts. Use Chr() instead.

Retrieves the single character corresponding to the character code indicated by *Number*.

`Transform, OutputVar, Chr, Number`

If *Number* is not between 1 and 255 inclusive (or 1 and 65535 if Unicode is supported), *OutputVar* will be made blank to indicate the problem. For example: `Transform, OutputVar, Chr, 130`

. Unlike Chr(), this sub-command does not support Unicode supplementary characters (character codes 0x10000 to 0x10FFFF).

**Deprecated:** Not recommended for use in new scripts. Use Mod() instead.

Retrieves the remainder of *Dividend* divided by *Divisor*.

`Transform, OutputVar, Mod, Dividend, Divisor`

If *Divisor* is zero, *OutputVar* will be made blank. *Dividend* and *Divisor* can both contain a decimal point. If negative, *Divisor* will be treated as positive for the calculation. In the following example, the result is 2: `Transform, OutputVar, Mod, 5, 3`

.

**Deprecated:** Not recommended for use in new scripts. Use Exp() instead.

Retrieves e (which is approximately 2.71828182845905) raised to the *N*th power.

`Transform, OutputVar, Exp, N`

*N* may be negative and may contain a decimal point.

**Deprecated:** Not recommended for use in new scripts. Use Sqrt() instead.

Retrieves the square root of *Number*.

`Transform, OutputVar, Sqrt, Number`

If *Number* is negative, *OutputVar* will be made blank.

**Deprecated:** Not recommended for use in new scripts. Use Log() instead.

Retrieves the logarithm (base 10) of *Number*.

`Transform, OutputVar, Log, Number`

If *Number* is negative, *OutputVar* will be made blank.

**Deprecated:** Not recommended for use in new scripts. Use Ln() instead.

Retrieves the natural logarithm (base e) of *Number*.

`Transform, OutputVar, Ln, Number`

If *Number* is negative, *OutputVar* will be made blank.

**Deprecated:** Not recommended for use in new scripts. Use Round() instead.

Retrieves *Number* rounded to *N* decimal places.

Transform, OutputVar, Round, Number , N

If *N* is omitted, *OutputVar* will be set to *Number* rounded to the nearest integer. If *N* is positive number, *Number* will be rounded to *N* decimal places. If *N* is negative, *Number* will be rounded by *N* digits to the left of the decimal point. For example, -1 rounds to the ones place, -2 rounds to the tens place, and-3 rounds to the hundreds place. Note: The Round sub-command does not remove trailing zeros when rounding decimal places. For example, 12.333 rounded to one decimal place would become 12.300000. This behavior can be altered by using something like `SetFormat, Float, 0.1`

prior to the operation (in fact, SetFormat might eliminate the need to use the Round sub-command in the first place).

**Deprecated:** Not recommended for use in new scripts. Use Ceil() instead.

Retrieves *Number* rounded up to the nearest integer.

`Transform, OutputVar, Ceil, Number`

**Deprecated:** Not recommended for use in new scripts. Use Floor() instead.

Retrieves *Number* rounded down to the nearest integer.

`Transform, OutputVar, Floor, Number`

**Deprecated:** Not recommended for use in new scripts. Use Abs() instead.

Retrieves the absolute value of *Number*.

`Transform, OutputVar, Abs, Number`

This is computed by removing the leading minus sign (dash) from *Number* if it has one.

**Deprecated:** Not recommended for use in new scripts. Use Sin() instead.

Retrieves the trigonometric sine of *Number*.

`Transform, OutputVar, Sin, Number`

*Number* must be expressed in radians.

**Deprecated:** Not recommended for use in new scripts. Use Cos() instead.

Retrieves the trigonometric cosine of *Number*.

`Transform, OutputVar, Cos, Number`

*Number* must be expressed in radians.

**Deprecated:** Not recommended for use in new scripts. Use Tan() instead.

Retrieves the trigonometric tangent of *Number*.

`Transform, OutputVar, Tan, Number`

*Number* must be expressed in radians.

**Deprecated:** Not recommended for use in new scripts. Use ASin() instead.

Retrieves the arcsine (the number whose sine is *Number*) in radians.

`Transform, OutputVar, ASin, Number`

If *Number* is less than -1 or greater than 1, *OutputVar* will be made blank.

**Deprecated:** Not recommended for use in new scripts. Use ACos() instead.

Retrieves the arccosine (the number whose cosine is *Number*) in radians.

`Transform, OutputVar, ACos, Number`

If *Number* is less than -1 or greater than 1, *OutputVar* will be made blank.

**Deprecated:** Not recommended for use in new scripts. Use ATan() instead.

Retrieves the arctangent (the number whose tangent is *Number*) in radians.

`Transform, OutputVar, ATan, Number`

**Deprecated:** Not recommended for use in new scripts. Use the `**`

operator instead.

Retrieves *Base* raised to the power of *Exponent*.

`Transform, OutputVar, Pow, Base, Exponent`

Both *Base* and *Exponent* may contain a decimal point. If *Exponent* is negative, *OutputVar* will be formatted as a floating point number even if *Base* and *Exponent* are both integers. A negative *Base* combined with a fractional *Exponent* such as 1.5 is not supported; it will cause *OutputVar* to be made blank.

**Deprecated:** Not recommended for use in new scripts. Use the `~`

operator instead.

Retrieves the bit-inverted version of *Number*.

`Transform, OutputVar, BitNot, Number`

Floating point values are truncated to integers prior to the calculation. If *Number* is between 0 and 4294967295 (0xffffffff), it will be treated as an **unsigned** 32-bit value. Otherwise, it is treated as a **signed** 64-bit value. In the following example, the result is 0xfffff0f0 (4294963440): `Transform, OutputVar, BitNot, 0xf0f`

.

**Deprecated:** Not recommended for use in new scripts. Use the `&`

operator instead.

Retrieves the result of the bitwise-AND of *Number1* and *Number2*.

`Transform, OutputVar, BitAnd, Number1, Number2`

Floating point values are truncated to integers prior to the calculation. In the following example, the result is 0xff00 (65280): `Transform, OutputVar, BitAnd, 0xff0f, 0xfff0`

.

**Deprecated:** Not recommended for use in new scripts. Use the `|`

operator instead.

Retrieves the result of the bitwise-OR of *Number1* and *Number2*.

`Transform, OutputVar, BitOr, Number1, Number2`

Floating point values are truncated to integers prior to the calculation. In the following example, the result is 0xf0f0 (61680): `Transform, OutputVar, BitOr, 0xf000, 0x00f0`

.

**Deprecated:** Not recommended for use in new scripts. Use the `^`

operator instead.

Retrieves the result of the bitwise-EXCLUSIVE-OR of *Number1* and *Number2*.

`Transform, OutputVar, BitXOr, Number1, Number2`

Floating point values are truncated to integers prior to the calculation. In the following example, the result is 0xff00 (65280): `Transform, OutputVar, BitXOr, 0xf00f, 0x0f0f`

.

**Deprecated:** Not recommended for use in new scripts. Use the `<<`

operator instead.

Retrieves the result of shifting *Number* to the left by *N* bit positions.

`Transform, OutputVar, BitShiftLeft, Number, N`

This is equivalent to multiplying *Number* by "2 to the *N*th power". Floating point values are truncated to integers prior to the calculation. In the following example, the result is 8: `Transform, OutputVar, BitShiftLeft, 1, 3`

.

**Deprecated:** Not recommended for use in new scripts. Use the `>>`

operator instead.

Retrieves the result of shifting *Number* to the right by *N* bit positions.

`Transform, OutputVar, BitShiftRight, Number, N`

This is equivalent to dividing *Number* by "2 to the *N*th power", truncating the remainder. Floating point values are truncated to integers prior to the calculation. In the following example, the result is 2: `Transform, OutputVar, BitShiftRight, 17, 3`

.

[AHK_L 54+]: Removed. Use StrPut() / StrGet() instead.

Sub-commands that accept numeric parameters can also use expressions for those parameters.

If one of the parameters is a floating point number, the following sub-commands will retrieve a floating point number rather than an integer: Mod, Pow, Round, and Abs. The number of decimal places retrieved is determined by SetFormat.

To convert a radians value to degrees, multiply it by 180/pi (approximately 57.29578). To convert a degrees value to radians, multiply it by pi/180 (approximately 0.01745329252).

The value of pi (approximately 3.141592653589793) is 4 times the arctangent of 1.

Math Functions, SetFormat, Expressions, Operators, StringLower, if var is type

Transform, OutputVar, Asc, A; Get the ASCII code of the letter A.